Characteristics of Some Types of Electrical Conductor Materials

As we have seen, that for the implementation of electric energy distribution can be done in two ways, namely in the form of overhead lines and ground wires. Air tract, especially the air delivery usually use a lot of bare wire comprising Conductor: bare copper wire (BCC, which stands for Cooper Bare Cable), Aluminum naked (AAC, which stands for All Aluminum Cable), aluminum-based mixtures (Al-Mg -Si), Aluminum steel core (ACSR, short for Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced), and steel wire containing copper layer (Cooper Weld). While on land the cable channel, typically using a cable with many kinds of conductive copper and aluminum, the development of a very dominant on the ground cable channel is from the side of an insulating material, where at the beginning of much use insulation made from paper with mechanical protection in the form of lead, then use the oil (type of cable is called GPLK or Gewapend Papier Lood cable which is a standard Dutch and NKBA or Normal Cable Bleimantel mit Aussenumheullung which is a standard German, and the latest type of insulation material is an artificial isolation of PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene ). Type of PVC and XLPE insulation materials at this point has been growing rapidly and represents a reliable insulation materials.

In the past, the materials are widely used for power lines is a type of copper (Cu). But because copper prices are high and unstable and even tended to rise, aluminum starts to peep out and used as raw wire power lines, either overhead lines or ground cable channels. Moreover, copper wire is often stolen because the material can be used to manufacture a variety of other products.

An overview will be presented below regarding the various types of metals or alloys used for electrical conduit wire, namely:

• electrolytic copper, which must meet several conditions of normalization, both regarding electrical conductivity and the mechanical properties.

• Brons, who has a greater mechanical strength, but has a low electrical conductivity. Often used for grounding wire.

• Aluminum, which has the advantage of very light material. The drawback is the rather low electrical conductivity and wire a little stiff. The price is very competitive. Hence the heavy competition for copper, and it can be said that practically are now beginning to be more widely used for electrical installations of the new strong currents in the copper.

• Aluminum core steel, which is usually known as ACSR (Aluminium Cable Steel Reinforced), an aluminum conductive wire that comes with the unit at the core of steel wire cord. Steel wire was needed in order to increase the tensile strength cables. ACSR is widely used for air conduction channel wires.

• Aldrey, the kind of mix between the aluminum wire with silicium (concentration about 0.4% - 0.7%), Magnesium (concentration between 0.3% - 0.35%) and ferum (concentration between 0.2% - 0, 3%). This wire has a very large mechanical strength, but rather low electrical conductivity.

• Cooper-weld, a steel wire that is around it given a layer of copper.

• Steel, the most widely used materials as well as wire lightning and grounding wire.

Based on the summary above, it can be said that the most important material for the channel is electrically conductive copper and aluminum, so the two materials are widely used as an introduction to electrical wire, either air or cable channel conductivity of the soil.