Saturday, 11 December 2010

Bio Gas

Biogas is gas produced by anaerobic activity or fermentation of organic materials including: human and animal waste, domestic waste (household), biodegradable waste or any organic waste is biodegradable in anaerobic conditions. The main content of the biogas is methane and carbon dioxide.
Biogas can be used as vehicle fuel or to generate electricity.Biogas and anaerobic activity
Biogas produced by anaerobic activity is very popular used to process biodegradable waste as fuel can be produced while destroying pathogenic bacteria and also reduce the volume of waste. Methane in biogas, when burnt will be relatively cleaner than coal, and produces greater energy with carbon dioxide emissions are less. Biogas utilization plays an important role in waste management because methane is a greenhouse gas that is more dangerous to global warming than carbon dioxide. Carbon in the biogas is captured carbon from the atmosphere by photosynthesis of plants, so that when released again into the atmosphere will not increase the amount of carbon at atmosphere when compared with fossil fuel combustion.
Today, many developed countries increase their use of biogas generated from both wastewater and solid waste or resulting from mechanical biological treatment system on site wastewater treatment.
Landfill gas
Landfill gas is a gas generated by solid waste dumped in landfills. Rubbish dumped and compressed mechanically and pressure from the layers above it. Because the conditions become anaerobic, the organic materials decompose and produce landfill gas. Gas is getting together to then slowly released into the atmosphere. It becomes dangerous because:
can cause explosion,
global warming through methane is a greenhouse gas, and
organic material is removed (volatile organic compounds) can cause (photochemical smog)Biogas composition generally ranges
The composition of biogas varies depending on the origin of anaerobic processes that occur. Landfill gas has methane concentrations around 50%, while the advanced wastewater treatment system can produce biogas with 55-75% CH4 Komponen % Metana (CH4) 55-75 Karbon dioksida (CO2) 25-45 Nitrogen (N2) 0-0.3 Hidrogen (H2) 1-5 Hidrogen sulfida (H2S) 0-3 Oksigen (O2) 0.1-0.5
Energy content
Calorific value of 1 cubic meter of about 6,000 watt/hour Biogas is equivalent to half a liter of diesel oil. Therefore Biogas is suitable as an alternative fuel an environmentally friendly substitute for kerosene, LPG, butane, coal, and other materials derived from fossil fuels.

Fertilizer from waste biogas
Waste biogas, namely manure which has lost its gas (slurry) is an organic fertilizer which is very rich in elements needed by plants. In fact, certain elements such as proteins, cellulose, lignin, and others can not be replaced by chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizer from biogas has been employed on corn, onion and rice.

Siloksan and gas engines (gas-fueled engines)
In some cases, landfill gas contains siloksan. During the combustion process, silicon is contained in siloksan will be released and can react with free oxygen or other elements contained in the gas. The result will form deposits (deposits), which generally contain silica (SiO2) or silicates (SixOy), but these deposits can also contain calcium, sulfur, sulfur, zinc (zinc), or phosphorus. These deposits (mostly white) to thicken up to several millimeters in the engine and is very difficult to remove both chemically and mechanically.
In internal combustion engines (internal combustion engines), deposits on pistons and cylinder heads are extremely abrasive, until a small amount is enough to damage the engine to have total care on 5000 operating hours or less. The damage is similar to that caused by carbon that arise during a light diesel engine works. Deposit on the turbine of the turbocharger will derive the efficiency of the charger.
Stirling engines are more resistant to siloksan, although the deposit on the tube can reduce the efficiency Biogas to natural gas
If biogas is cleaned of impurities as well, he will have the same characteristics as natural gas. If this can be achieved, biogas producers to sell directly to the gas distribution network. But the gas must be very clean to reach pipeline quality. Water (H2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and particulates must be removed if it is contained in large quantities in the gas. Carbon dioxide eliminated rarely has to go, but he also must be separated to achieve pipeline quality gas. If the biogas must be used without extensive cleaning, this gas is usually mixed with natural gas to improve combustion. Biogas that has been cleaned to achieve pipeline quality renewable natural gas called.The use of renewable natural gas
In this form, the gas can be used just like natural gas usage. Utilization such as through a network of gas distribution, power generation, heating and water heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas (CNG) used in vehicles.

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