Different from fuel oil and coal, although the initial process of manufacture is also of living creatures, but cannot be updated because of the formation of two fuels took millions of years. Bio fuel itself is an example of biomass. As the name implies, Biogas is a gaseous fuel.
At least, there are two kinds of Biogas is known today, namely Biogas (also often called marsh gas) and Biosyngas. The fundamental difference of the two ingredients above is the weave. Biogas is produced from the fermentation process of organic materials with the aid of anaerobic bacteria in the environment without free oxygen. Biogas energy is dominated by methane (CH4) 60% -70%, 40% -30% of carbon dioxide and other gases in smaller quantities. While Biosyngas (or more often abbreviated as syngas or Producer Gas) is the product between (intermediate), created through a process of gasification at high temperatures thermokimia where carbon-rich materials such as coal, petroleum, natural gas or biomass converted into carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (O2). If the raw materials of coal, petroleum and natural gas, so-called syngas, whereas if the biomass raw material is called Biosyngas. Biosyngas can be used directly to fuel or as raw material for other chemical processes.
In principle, the making of Biogas is very simple, just by entering the substrate (cattle manure) into the anaerobic digester. In a certain time Biogas will be formed which can then be used as an energy source, eg for gas or electric stove. Use of bio digester can help the development of agricultural systems by recycling manure to produce biogas and a byproduct obtained (by-product) in the form of organic fertilizer. In addition, with the use bio digester to reduce emissions of methane (CH4) is produced on decomposition of organic material produced from agricultural and livestock sector, since cow manure is not allowed to decompose in the open but fermented into bio-gas energy.
As we know, the gases include the greenhouse gas methane (greenhouse gas), along with CO2 greenhouse effect causing global warming phenomenon. Reducing methane locally this can play a positive role in global problem solving efforts.
The potential for cow dung used as raw Biogas production is actually quite large, but not all breeders use it. Even during this has created problems of pollution and environmental health. Generally, the farmers dispose of cow manure into rivers or directly sell them to collectors with very cheap price. And of course cow dung can be obtained by products (by-product) is quite a lot. As an example of liquid organic fertilizer derived from urine containing auxin is high enough so that both the source material for fertilizer to grow. Cow's blood serum from places slaughterhouses could be used as a source of nutrients for plants, other than that of cow innards of waste generated can also activators as an alternative source of decomposer.
When compared with other bio fuels, Biogas calorific value is very high, namely of 15,000 KJ / kg when compared with charcoal (7,000 KJ / Kg), wood (2,400 KJ / Kg) and even kerosene (8,000 KJ / Kg). Therefore, applications can be developed using biogas for cooking and lighting (generating electricity). How to make Biogas from cow dung?
As explained above, with cow dung to make biogas quite easy. Only by incorporating manure into an anaerobic digester, and silence him for a while, Biogas will be formed. This can happen because in fact in a fresh cow manure contained bacteria that will download the fermented dung. Without even incorporated into the biogas digester it will be formed on the decomposition process cow manure, but the process lasts longer and, of course, the biogas produced cannot be used.
There are three types of digesters that have been developed so far, namely:
1. Fixed dome plant, which was developed in china,
2. Floating drum plant, which is more widely used in India with a variant cover plastic biogas plant, and
3. Plug-flow balloon plant or a plant which is widely used in Taiwan, Ethiopia, Colombia, Vietnam and Cambodia. This species is also a lot used by our farmers in Lembang and Cisarua.
Principal parts of bio-gas digester are:
1. container vessel animal manure,
3. slurry tanks,
4. gas reservoir,
5. gas pipe exit,
6. slurry pipe exit,
7. intake of cattle dung.
Fixed dome plant
In the fixed dome plant, digesternya fixed. Gas reservoir is at the top of the digester. When gas began to arise, the gas pressure slurry into slurry tanks. If a continuous supply of manure, the gas that arises will continue to press slurry until the slurry out of the tub overflowed. Gas arising used / issued through the gas pipe was given valve / faucet.
Advantages: no moving parts, durable (long life), created in the ground so that is protected from weather or other disorders and do not need a room (above ground).
Disadvantages: Sometimes leaks occur, because the porosity and cracks, changing the gas pressure because there is no pressure valve.
Floating drum plant Floating drum plant consists of a digester and a gas container can be moved. This gas reservoir will move upward when the gas increased and decreased again when the gas is reduced, along with the use and production of gas.
Advantages: the gas pressure is constant because the reservoir of gas that moves to follow the amount of gas. The amount of gas can be easily known by looking at the ups and downs drums.
Disadvantages: Construction on the drums a bit complicated.Usually the drum is made of metal (iron), making it easy to rust, as a result of this section is not very durable (frequent replacement).Even if digesternya also made of a metal drum (iron), digeseter this type is not so durable.
Balloon plant construction is simpler, made of plastic on the ends fitted into the pipe for manure and slurry pipe out peluapan. While at the top of the installed pipe out of gas.
Advantages: low cost, easily transportable, simple construction, easy maintenance and operation.
Disadvantages: not durable, easily broken, making way must be very careful and cautious (because the materials are easily damaged), the material is difficult to obtain qualified