Scarcity of fuel oil, caused by rising global oil prices significantly, has prompted the government to invite the community to overcome the problem of energy together (Kompas, June 23, 2005).
The increase in prices reached 58 dollars the United States this includes extraordinary because usually occurs during winter in countries that have four seasons in Europe and the United States.This problem is complicated as it is said President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in a meeting with the governors in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, June 22, 2005, and invites the public to save energy throughout the country.
These savings should in fact we have since the first move because the supply of fuel derived from petroleum is a fossil energy source that can not be updated (unrenewable), while demand continues to rise, so the price so there is no stability in the balance of demand and supply. One way to conserve fuel oil (BBM) is looking for alternative energy sources that can be updated (renewable).
Fuel demand for low-income and poor population, especially in rural areas, mostly filled with kerosene which was felt reasonable because subsidized by the government. But because it is used for industrial or other business, sometimes there is a shortage of petroleum supplies in the market. In addition, those living near forest areas trying to find firewood, either from dry twigs and often cutting down trees in the forest is forbidden to cut down, so that eventually threaten the sustainability of the natural surrounding forest.
Actually, an alternative energy source is available. For example, solar energy in the dry season or dry season, wind energy and water. Hydropower is the most widely used in the form of hydroelectric power (hydropower), but for other energy sources have not looked significantly.
Other renewable energy can be generated by appropriate technology is relatively simple and suitable for rural areas is biogas energy by processing waste or bio-bio-mass within the airtight tool called a digester. Biomass waste can be a form of animal manure and even human feces, the remains of crops such as straw, husks and leaves assortment of vegetables and so forth. However, consist largely of cattle dung.
Methane formed by anaerobic fermentation (without air) by methane bacteria also called biogas, anaerobic bacteria and bacteria that reduce the waste that contain lots of organic material (biomass) to form methane (CH4), which when burned to produce heat energy . Actually in certain places this process occurs naturally as a gas explosion incident that formed under a pile of garbage in the landfill (TPA) Leuwigajah, Bandung regency, West Java, (Kompas, March 17, 2005). Methane gas with liquefied petroleum gas (liquidified petroleum gas / LPG), the difference is that methane has a C atom, whereas more LPG.
Culture of Egypt, China and ancient Rome have been known to take advantage of this natural gas is burned to produce heat.However, the first to associate this fuel gas with vegetable material decomposition process is Alessandro Volta (1776), while Willam Henry in 1806 identified the gas that can burn such as methane.Becham (1868), disciple of Louis Pasteur and Tappeiner (1882), shows the microbiological origin of the formation of methane.
In the late 19th century, there is some research in this field are made. Germany and France to do research on the period between the two World Wars and several units of biogas plants using agricultural waste. During World War II, many farmers in the UK and continental Europe that make small digesters to produce biogas which is used to drive a tractor. Because the price of fuel is getting cheaper and easier to get it in the 1950s abandoned the use of biogas in Europe. However, in developing countries will need a cheap source of energy is always there and always available. Biogas production activities in India have been made since the 19th century. Tool's first anaerobic digester was built in 1900. (FAO, The Development and Use of Biogas Technology in Rural Asia, 1981).
Other developing countries, like China, Philippines, Korea, Taiwan, and Papua New Guinea, has conducted various research and development of bio-gas generating devices on the same principle, namely creating an airtight instrument with principal parts consist of digestive (digester), holes income and expenditure of raw materials sludge remaining after digestion (slurry) and bio-gas distribution pipe formed.
With certain technologies, methane can be used to drive turbines that generate electricity, run the refrigerator, tetas machinery, tractors, and cars. Simply put, methane can be used for cooking and lighting gas stoves as well as LPG.